Urban DEM (Digital Elevation Model)

Fresnel diagram

potentially passive floor area the floor area within twice the floor to ceiling height from a facade, typically 6 m deep

sky view factor representing a good measure of the openness of the urban texture to the sky, often associated, among other indicators, to the increase in temperature in the urban context compared with the surrounding rural context, referred to as the urban heat island phenomenon.

Surface to volume ratio, obtained by dividing the total surface of buildings (facades plus roofs) by their volume, indicative of the building envelope surface which is exposed to the outside environment.

Shadow density, a parameter based on detecting shadows on the ground at hourly intervals on a piece of city for a given day of the year

Daylight distribution, measured as ‘direct daylight factor’ values in streets

Daily temperature range


openness to synoptic events

proximity to water

surrounding topography

aerodynamic roughness

mean aspect ratio

impermeable surface cover

surface roughness length

impervious surface fraction

thermal admittance


anthropogenic heat flux

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